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Molecular Hydrogen Research

Molecular hydrogen research

In just 12 years of molecular hydrogen research there have been over 1500 published scientific articles on the health benefits of various methods of hydrogen consumption. Already there are over 85 human trials using hydrogen as a therapeutic agent, primarily through hydrogen infused water. Hydrogen water has shown to benefit over 170 models throughout every organ in the body.


Metabolic and Mitochondrial

1. Diabetes Type 2, hydrogen water

Kajiyama et al., 2008. Supplementation of hydrogen-rich water improves lipid and glucose metabolism in patients with type 2 diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance. Nutrition Research.

2. Metabolic syndrome, hydrogen water

Nakao et al., 2010. Effectiveness of Hydrogen Rich Water on Antioxidant Status of Subjects with Potential Metabolic Syndrome—An Open Label Pilot Study. Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition.

3. Metabolic syndrome, hydrogen water

Song et al., 2013. Hydrogen-rich water decreases serum LDL-cholesterol levels and improves HDL function in patients with potential metabolic syndrome. Journal of Lipid Research.

4. High cholesterol, hydrogen water

Song et al., 2015. Hydrogen Activates ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter A1-Dependent Efflux Ex Vivo and Improves High-Density Lipoprotein Function in Patients with Hypercholesterolemia: A Double-Blinded, Randomized, and Placebo-Controlled Trial. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism.

5. Mitochondrial and inflammatory myopathies, hydrogen water

Ito et al., 2011. Open-label trial and randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial of hydrogen-enriched water for mitochondrial and inflammatory myopathies. Medical Gas Research.

6. Body comp/metabolism, oral H2 tablets

Korovljev et al., 2018. Molecular hydrogen affects body composition, metabolic profiles, and mitochondrial function in middle-aged overweight women. Irish Journal of Medical Science.

7. Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD), hydrogen water OUR HYDROGEN TABLETS

Korovljev et al., 2019. Hydrogen-Rich Water Reduces Liver Fat Accumulation and Improves Liver Enzyme Profiles in Patients With Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Trial. Clinics and Research in Hepatology and Gastroenterology.

8. Secondary analysis on NAFLD via HOMA2-insulin sensitivity, hydrogen water OUR HYDROGEN TABLETS

Korovljev et al., 2019. Hydrogen-Rich Water Positively Affects HOMA2 Variables in Physically Inactive Population. Abstract from the 5th International Scientific Conference on Exercise and Quality of Life. PAGE 3

9. Vascular endothelial function, hydrogen water, high acute dose

Sakai et al., 2014. Consumption of Water Containing Over 3.5 Mg of Dissolved Hydrogen Could Improve Vascular Endothelial Function. Vascular Health and Risk Management.

10. Cardiometabolic risk factors in elderly, hydrogen inhalation

Korovljev et al., 2018. Hydrogen Inhalation Positively Affects Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Men and Women Aged 65 Years or Older: A Preliminary Report. European Geriatric Medicine.

11. Reduction in IL-1b mRNA in peripheral blood in type 2 diabetics post meal, acarbose for internal H2 production*

Tamasawa et al, 2015. Hydrogen Gas Production Is Associated With Reduced Interleukin-1β Mrna in Peripheral Blood After a Single Dose of Acarbose in Japanese Type 2 Diabetic Patients. European Journal of Pharmacology.

12. Body composition, blood lipid profiles and inflammation biomarkers in men and women with metabolic syndrome, hydrogen water OUR HYDROGEN TABLETS

LeBaron TW, Singh RB, Fatima G, Kartikey K, Sharma JP, Ostojic SM, Gvozdjakova A, Kura B, Noda M, Mojto V, Niaz MA, Slezak J. The Effects of 24-Week, High-Concentration Hydrogen-Rich Water on Body Composition, Blood Lipid Profiles and Inflammation Biomarkers in Men and Women With Metabolic Syndrome: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes. 2020;13:889-896

Athletic Performance, Recovery, and Athlete Health

1. Enhances endurances and reduces fatigue, hydrogen water

Mikami et al, 2019. Drinking Hydrogen Water Enhances Endurance and Relieves Psychometric Fatigue: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study. Candian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology.

2. Gut flora in female athletes, hydrogen water

Sha et al, 2018. Effects of the Long-Term Consumption of Hydrogen-Rich Water on the Antioxidant Activity and the Gut Flora in Female Juvenile Soccer Players From Suzhou, China. Medical Gas Research

3. Lowered submaximal heart rate in VO2 max stress test, acute use of hydrogen water OUR HYDROGEN TABLETS

LeBaron et al., 2019. Acute Supplementation With Molecular Hydrogen Benefits Submaximal Exercise Indices. Randomized, Double-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled Crossover Pilot Study. Journal of Lifestyle Medicine.

4. VO2 max and work completed, hydrogen water OUR HYDROGEN TABLETS

Ostojic et al., 2018. 28-Days Hydrogen-Rich Water Supplementation Affects Exercise Capacity in Mid-Age Overweight Women. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise.

5. Protection against free radical injury in athletes after high intensity exercise, hydrogen water

Sun & Sun, 2017. Selective Protective Effect of Hydrogen Water on Free Radical Injury of Athletes After High-Intensity Exercise. Biomedical Research.

6. Positive effects on redox status after 3 days of strenuous exercise, hydrogen water

Shibayama et al., 2017. Hydrogen-Rich Water Modulates Redox Status Repeated Three Consecutive Days of Strenuous Exercise. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise

7. Muscle fatigue, hydrogen water

Aokia et al., 2012. Pilot study: Effects of Drinking Hydrogen-Rich Water on Muscle Fatigue Caused by Acute Exercise in Elite Athletes. Medical Gas Research.

8. Prolonged intermittent exercise, hydrogen water

Da Ponte et al., 2017. Effects of Hydrogen Rich Water on Prolonged Intermittent Exercise. The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness.

9. Exercise induced acidosis, hydrogen water

Drid et al., 2016. Is Molecular Hydrogen Beneficial to Enhance Post-Exercise Recovery in Female Athletes? Science & Sports.

10. Soft tissue injury in athletes, oral H2 consumption + topical**

Ostojic et al., 2015. Effectiveness of Oral and Topical Hydrogen for Sports-Related Soft Tissue Injuries. Postgraduate Medicine.

11. Responses to exercise, hydrogen water

Botek et al., 2019. Hydrogen Rich Water Improved Ventilatory, Perceptual and Lactate Responses to Exercise. International Journal of Sports Medicine.

12. Hydrogen bathing on muscle fatigue, hydrogen water bath

Kawamura et al., 2016. Effects of Hydrogen Bathing on Exercise-Induced Oxidative Stress and Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness. Western Pacific Region Index Medicus.

13. Koyama et al., 2008. Effect of Hydrogen Saturated Alkaline Electrolyzed Water on Urinary Oxidative Stress Markers After an Acute Exercise: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Anti-aging Med.***

14. Exercise recovery, hydrogen water

Drid et al., 2016. Molecular Hydrogen Affected Post-Exercise Recovery in Judo Athletes. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise

15. Female athletes, antioxidant capacity, hydrogen water

Minghao et al., 2017. Effects of Hydrogen-Rich Water on Antioxidant Capacity in Female Judo Athletes in Training.Chin J Sports Med. *IN CHINESE, ENGLISH ABSTRACT AVAILABLE

16. Lactic acid build up, exhaustive exercise, hydrogen water

Li Chen, 2015. Hydrogen Rich-Water on Blood Lactic Acid After Repeated Exhaustive Exercise. Journal of Taishan Medical College * IN CHINESE, ENGLISH ABSTRACT AVAILABLE

17. Case study Grade 2 ankle tear, topical hydrogen water OUR HYDROGEN TABLETS

Dejan Javorac, Valdemar Stajer. Case Report: Acute Hydrotherapy With Super-Saturated Hydrogen-Rich Water for Ankle Sprain in a Professional Athlete [Version 1; Peer Review: Awaiting Peer Review]

18. Exercise performance in healthy adults, hydrogen inhalation

Javorac D, Stajer V, Ratgeber L, Betlehem J, Ostojic SM, 2019. Short-Term H2 Inhalation Improves Exercise Performance in Healthy Adults. Biology of Sport.

19. Acute ingestion for exercise performance, hydrogen water no results

Ooi, Ng and Omar, 2019. Acute Ingestion of Hydrogen-Rich Water Does Not Improve Incremental Treadmill Running Performance in Endurance-Trained Athletes. Applied Physiology and Research Metabolism

20. Physical activity of athletes, hydrogen water

Peng Wu, 2020. Hydrogen-Rich Water Improves the Physical Ability of Football Players and the Anti-Fatigue Ability of Rats, Revista Cientifica

21. Acute hydrogen water in endurance athletes, Hydrogen water, very small benefit

Received 09 Nov 2019, Accepted 04 Feb 2020, Published online: 17 Apr 2020

22. Topical Hydrogen water vs RICE protocol for ankle tears, hydrogen water (our hydrogen tablets) add to sports and recovery

Sergej M. OSTOJIC, et al., 2020. Hydrotherapy with Hydrogen-Rich Water Versus RICE Protocol for Acute Ankle Sprain in Professional Athletes. Official Journal of the American College of Sports Medicine

23. Effects Of Rich Hydrogen And Oxygen Mixed Gas Inhalation After High Intensity Exercise

Shibayama et al., 2020. The Effects Of Rich Hydrogen And Oxygen Mixed Gas Inhalation After High Intensity Exercise Influence On Exercise Performance Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise: July 2020 - Volume 52 - Issue 7S - p 1024-1025 doi: 10.1249/01.mss.0000686736.01790.22

Brain Recovery From Acute Injury, Neurological Conditions, and Brain Health

1. Mild cognitive impairment, hydrogen water

Ohta et al., 2017. Effects of Molecular Hydrogen Assessed by an Animal Model and a Randomized Clinical Study on Mild Cognitive Impairment. Current Alzheimer Research.

2. Improving outcomes of Alzheimer’s, hydrogen inhalation

Ono et al., 2018. Pilot Study on Therapeutic Inhalation of Hydrogen Gas for Improving Patients With Alzheimer’s Disease Assessed by Cognitive Subscale Scores and Magnetic Resonance Diffusion Tensor Imaging. Bioaccent.

3. Acute cerebral infarction, hydrogen inhalation

Ono et al., 2017. Hydrogen Gas Inhalation Treatment in Acute Cerebral Infarction: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Study on Safety and Neuroprotection. Journal of Stroke & Cerebrovascular

4. Acute cerebral ischemia, hydrogen inhalation

Ono et al., 2012. A Basic Study on Molecular Hydrogen (H2) Inhalation in Acute Cerebral Ischemia Patients for Safety Check With Physiological Parameters and Measurement of Blood H2 Level. Medical Gas Research.

5. Acute brain stem infarct, hydrogen saline + Edaravone

Ono et al., 2011. Improved Brain MRI Indices in the Acute Brain Stem Infarct Sites Treated With Hydroxyl Radical Scavengers, Edaravone and Hydrogen, as Compared to Edaravone Alone. A Non-Controlled Study. Medical Gas Research.

6. Acute cerebral infarction, hydrogen saline + Edaravone

Nagatani et al., 2013. Safety of Intravenous Administration of Hydrogen-Enriched Fluid in Patients With Acute Cerebral Ischemia: Initial Clinical Studies. Medical Gas Research.

7. Newborn abnormal neurological function, hydrogen water

Yang, Li and Chen, 2016. Hydrogen water reduces NSE, IL-6, and TNF-α levels in hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Open Med

8. Parkinson’s, hydrogen water

Yoritaka et al., 2013. Pilot Study of H₂ Therapy in Parkinson's Disease: A Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Trial. Movement Disorders.

9. Parkinson’s, no result, hydrogen water****

Yoritaka et al., 2018. Randomized, Double-Blind, Multicenter Trial of Hydrogen Water for Parkinson's Disease. Movement Disorders.

10. Parkinson’s, no result, hydrogen inhalation

Hiriyama et al., 2018. Inhalation of Hydrogen Gas Elevates Urinary 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanine in Parkinson’s Disease Hiriyama et al., Medical Gas Research.

11. Concussion recovery case study, hydrogen water (OUR HYDROGEN TABLETS)

Javorac et al., 2019. Case Report: Buccal Administration of Hydrogen-Producing Blend After a Mild Traumatic Brain Injury in a Professional Athlete [Version 1; Peer Review: Awaiting Peer Review]. F1000 Research.

****This one needs some context. There were massive failures in this trial, namely there were mix ups in the placebo control group where they were intermittently given high doses of hydrogen in the water. Both placebo and control saw significant improvements over expectations and analysis against similar trials, but no benefit against each other. Both were receiving high dose hydrogen. One daily, the other perhaps every other day, and daily receiving at least 0.16mg/L cited in paped. The exact routine is unknown. There is currently underway a 52-week, 70 participant trial on PD in the USA. The registration can be found here

Regardless, we cannot state that H2 is beneficial for PD. We simply do not know. I cannot overstate this enough. We do not know, and it is unethical for marketers to push H2 for patients with PD. ***

12. Cognitive function in elderly, hydrogen inhalation

Korovljev D, Trivic T, Stajer V, Drid P, Sato B, Ostojic SM. 2019. Short-Term H2 Inhalation Improves Cognitive Function in Older Women: A Pilot Study. International Journal of Gerontology.

13. Hydrogen water vs Caffeine for improving alertness after sleep deprivation, hydrogen water (our hydrogen tablets)

D Zanini, et al., 2020. Hydrogen vs. Caffeine for Improved Alertness in Sleep-Deprived Humans. Springer Link


1. Psoriasis, hydrogen water baths

Zhu et al., 2018. Positive Effects of Hydrogen-Water Bathing in Patients of Psoriasis and Parapsoriasis en Plaques. Scientific Reports.

2. Wrinkles reduction, hydrogen water baths

Kato et al., 2012. Hydrogen-Rich Electrolyzed Warm Water Represses Wrinkle Formation Against Uva Ray Together With Type-i Collagen Production and Oxidative-Stress Diminishment in Fibroblasts and Cell-Injury Prevention in Keratinocytes. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology.

3. Red skin/inflamed diseases, hydrogen saline

Ono et al., 2012. Hydrogen(H2) Treatment for Acute Erythymatous Skin Diseases. A Report of 4 Patients With Safety Data and a Non-Controlled Feasibility Study With H2 Concentration Measurement on Two Volunteers. Medical Gas Research.

4. Psoriasis, skin lesions, case studies, hydrogen water+saline+gas

Ishibashi et al., 2015. Improvement of Psoriasis-Associated Arthritis and Skin Lesions by Treatment With Molecular Hydrogen: A Report of Three Cases. Molecular Medicine Reports.

5. Pressure ulcers, hydrogen water

Li et al., 2013. Hydrogen Water Intake Via Tube-Feeding for Patients With Pressure Ulcer and Its Reconstructive Effects on Normal Human Skin Cells in Vitro. Medical Gas Research.

6. Graft vs. host disease case study, hydrogen water (drinking)

Qian & Shen, 2016. Successful Treatment With Hydrogen Rich Water in a Case of Chronic Graft-Versus-Host-Disease. Medical Gas Research.

7. UV damage in skin in vivo, topical hydrogen water******

Shin et al., 2013. Atomic Hydrogen Surrounded by Water Molecules, H(H2O)m, Modulates Basal and UV-Induced Gene Expressions in Human Skin in Vivo. PLOS One.

8. Keratin plugged hair pores, hydrogen water baths

Tanaka et al., 2018. Electrolytically Generated Hydrogen Warm Water Cleanses the Keratin-Plug-Clogged Hair-Pores and Promotes the Capillary Blood-streams, More Markedly Than Normal Warm Water Does. Medical Gas Research.

9. Visceral fat and skin blotches, hydrogen water baths

Asada R, et al., 2019. Effects of Hydrogen-Rich Water Bath on Visceral Fat and Skin Blotch, With Boiling-Resistant Hydrogen Bubbles. Medical Gas Research


1. Peritoneal dialysis, hydrogen rich dialysate

Terawaki et al., 2013. Transperitoneal Administration of Dissolved Hydrogen for Peritoneal Dialysis Patients: A Novel Approach to Suppress Oxidative Stress in the Peritoneal Cavity. Medical Gas Research.

2. Kidney dialysis for inflammation, hydrogen saline

Nakayama et al., 2010. A Novel Bioactive Haemodialysis System Using Dissolved Dihydrogen (H2) Produced by Water Electrolysis: A Clinical Trial. Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation.

3. Low hydrogen dialysis

Nakayama et al., 2009. Biological Effects of Electrolyzed Water in Hemodialysis. Nephron Clinical Practice.

4. Improvement in chronic dialysis patients, hydrogen rich dialysis

Nakayama et al., 2018. Novel Haemodialysis (HD) Treatment Employing Molecular Hydrogen (H2)-Enriched Dialysis Solution Improves Prognosis of Chronic Dialysis Patients: A Prospective Observational Study. Scientific Reports

5. Improvement of the fraction of human mercaptalbumin on hemodialysis treatment, hydrogen rich dialysis

Maeda et al, 2016. Improvement of the Fraction of Human Mercaptalbumin on Hemodialysis Treatment Using Hydrogen-Dissolved Hemodialysis Fluid: A Prospective Observational Study. Renal Replacement Therapy.

6. Interim analysis, observational improvements over 12 months in 262 patients on dialysis, hydrogen rich dialysis

Nakayama et al., 2017. Possible clinical Effects of Molecular Hydrogen (H2) Delivery During Hemodialysis in Chronic Dialysis Patients: Interim Analysis in a 12 Month Observation. PLOS One


1. Hepatitis B, hydrogen water

Xia et al., 2013. Effect of Hydrogen-Rich Water on Oxidative Stress, Liver Function, and Viral Load in Patients With Chronic Hepatitis B. Clinical and Translational Science.

2. Post-cardiac arrest, hydrogen inhalation

Tamura et al., 2016. Feasibility and Safety of Hydrogen Gas Inhalation for Post-Cardiac Arrest Syndrome – First-in-Human Pilot Study. Circulation Journal.

3. Heart surgery, hydrogen inhalation

Katsumata et al., 2017. The Effects of Hydrogen Gas Inhalation on Adverse Left Ventricular Remodeling After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention for ST-Elevated Myocardial Infarction - First Pilot Study in Humans

Circ J. 2017

4. Hydrogen-rich water for improvements of mood, anxiety and autonomic nerve function in daily life, hydrogen water

Mizuno et al., 2017. Hydrogen-Rich Water for Improvements of Mood, Anxiety, and Autonomic Nerve Function in Daily Life. Medical Gas Research

5. Periodontitis and antioxidant status, hydrogen water

Azuma et al., 2015. Drinking Hydrogen-Rich Water Has Additive Effects on Non-Surgical Periodontal Treatment of Improving Periodontitis: A Pilot Study. Antioxidants.

6. Blood alkalization, hydrogen water

Ostojic et al, 2012. Serum Alkalinization and Hydrogen-Rich Water in Healthy Men. Mayo Clinic Proceedings.

7. Blood alkalization, hydrogen water

Ostojic & Stojanovic, 2012. Hydrogen-Rich Water Affected Blood Alkalinity in Physically Active Men. Research in Sports Medicine.

8. Painful bladder syndrome, hydrogen water (did not work, potential small responder group)

Matsumoto et al., 2013. Effect of Supplementation With Hydrogen-Rich Water in Patients With Interstitial Cystitis/Painful Bladder Syndrome. Urology

9. Fecal matter and reported sleep function, hydrogen water

Tanaka et al., 2018. Daily Ingestion of Alkaline Electrolyzed Water Containing Hydrogen

Influences Human Health, Including Gastrointestinal Symptoms. Medical Gas Research.

10. Tracheal Stenosis (cause not stated, radiation therapy?), hydrogen inhalation

Zhou ZQ, et al., 2019. Breathing Hydrogen-Oxygen Mixture Decreases Inspiratory Effort in Patients With Tracheal Stenosis.

11. GERD hydrogen-rich water

Franceschelli S, Gatta DMP, Pesce M, Ferrone A, Di Martino G, Di Nicola M, De Lutiis MA, Vitacolonna E, Patruno A, Grilli A, Felaco M, Speranza L.2018. Modulation of the Oxidative Plasmatic State In Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease With The Addition of Rich Water Molecular Hydrogen: A New Biological Vision. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine. 2018 May; 22(5):2750-2759. doi: 10.1111/jcmm.13569. Epub 2018 Mar 7. PMID: 29512923; PMCID: PMC5908129.

A Sampling of the Many Review Articles

Metabolic and Cardiac:

1. LeBaron et al., 2019. A New Approach for the Prevention and Treatment of Cardiovascular Disorders. Molecular Hydrogen Significantly Reduces the Effects of Oxidative Stress. Molecules 2. Zhang et al., 2018. Hydrogen Therapy in Cardiovascular and Metabolic Diseases: From Bench to Bedside. Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry.

Alzheimer’s and Neurological Conditions:

1. Tan et al., 2018. The role of Hydrogen in Alzheimer’s Disease. Medical Gas Research. 2. Ohta & Asada, 2018. Molecular Hydrogen as an Emerging Candidate for Preventing Alzheimer’s Disease. Bioaccent. 3. Dohi et al., 2017. Molecular Hydrogen in the Treatment of Acute and Chronic Neurological Conditions: Mechanisms of Protection and Routes of Administration. Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition. 4. Iketani & Ohsawa et al., 2017. Molecular Hydrogen as a Neuroprotective Agent.Current Neuropharmacology.

Exercise Performance:

1. LeBaron et al., 2019. Hydrogen Gas: From Clinical Medicine to an Emerging Ergogenic Molecule for Sports Athletes. Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology.

Radiation Injury:

1. Kura et al., 2018. Molecular Hydrogen: Potential in Mitigating Oxidative-stress-Induced Radiation Injury. Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology.


1. Qiu et al., 2019. Recent Advances in Studies of Molecular Hydrogen Against Sepsis. International Journal of Biological Sciences.

Emergency and Critical Care:

1. Sano et al., 2017. Promising Novel Therapy With Hydrogen Gas for Emergency and Critical Care Medicine. Acute Medicine & Surgery 2. Ming Yang, Zheng Zhang, Bo Gao, Lithua Liu, Taohong Hu., 2017. Hydrogen Medicine Therapy: An Effective and Promising Novel Treatment for Multiple Organ Dysfunction (MODS) Induced by Infuenza and Other Viral Infections Diseases? SOJ Microbiology & Infectious Diseases

General Reviews:

1. Ichihara et al., 2015. Beneficial Biological Effects and the Underlying Mechanisms of Molecular Hydrogen - Comprehensive Review of 321 Original Articles. Medical Gas Research. 2. Dixon et al., 2013. The Evolution of Molecular Hydrogen: A Noteworthy Potential Therapy With Clinical Significance. Medical Gas Research. 3. Nicolson et al., 2016. Clinical Effects of Hydrogen Administration: From Animal and Human Diseases to Exercise Medicine. International Journal of Clinical Medicine. 4. Li et al., 2017. The Transfer of Hydrogen From Inert Gas to Therapeutic Gas. Medical Gas Research.

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